There are a number of methods and techniques for working with toddlers who don’t yet communicate effectively with others. When we think about these methods, we often group them into two larger categories: indirect and direct. Indirect, or input-based, methods rely on adults providing lots of rich language in a child’s environment; with these methods, however, we don’t require children to do anything in the moment. There is considerable evidence to support these input-based methods, especially for late-talkers and toddlers and preschoolers who struggle with the grammatical aspects of language. Despite the effectiveness of input-based methods in some situations, there are times when these indirect methods of language facilitation aren’t all that are needed. In these cases, we might choose to use a more direct method of helping a child to communicate. Direct methods involve expecting a child to do something – to use a gesture, or a word, for example – right in the moment when we are teaching them. This is where prelinguistic milieu teaching enters the picture.